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Friday, 10 July 2015

Promote Critic Reviews

Each day, millions of users turn to Google to find critic reviews on the web. Google wants to help users quickly find insightful critic reviews by aggregating snippets from top reviewers.


With your reviews displayed prominently in Google searches, your readers will be able to easily find your reviews, see helpful snippets from them, and navigate to your website to read the complete reviews. To make sure your reviews are surfacing in these features, _you must identify and summarize your reviews using structured data markup on your official website.

Providing review data

Google's approach to organizing critic reviews depends on finding markup the official website of each review provider. Human-readable reviews are not sufficient; instead, the website must include structured data about each review.
This document describes how to provide this structured data by adding HTML markup to your reviews.

Adding HTML review markup

Providing Google with information about your reviews is simple. Just add structured markup code to a page on your website where the review appears. The page can be any of the following:
  • The website's home page
  • A page linked from the home page that provides a list of available reviews
  • A page that displays an individual review.
Google will collect review markup from all the pages it indexes on your site.
You can embed data in a web page using schema.org field names and the JSON-LD data format. JSON-LD is easy to produce with many widely available JSON encoders. The data, enclosed within the <script type="application/ld+json"> ... </script> tags as shown in the example below may be placed in either the <HEAD> or <BODY> region of the page. Either way, it won't affect how your document appears in users' web browsers.
Here's an example snippet of JSON-LD describing a review of the movie Gravity:
<script type="application/ld+json">
{
  "@context":"http://schema.org",
  "@type":"Review",
  "author":{
    "@type":"Person",
    "name":"Lisa Kennedy",
    "sameAs":"https://plus.google.com/114108465800532712602"
  },
  "datePublished":"2014-03-13T20:00",
  "description":"Nerve-racking, sentimental and thrilling.",
  "inLanguage":"en",
  "itemReviewed":{
    "@type":"Movie",
    "name":"Gravity",
    "sameAs":"http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1454468/",
    "datePublished":"2013-10-04T00:00",
    "director":{
      "@type":"Person",
      "name":"Alfonso Cuarón",
      "sameAs":"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_Cuar%C3%B3n"
    },
    "actor":[
      {
        "@type":"Person",
        "name":"Sandra Bullock",
        "sameAs":"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandra_Bullock"
      },
      {
        "@type":"Person",
        "name":"George Clooney",
        "sameAs":"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Clooney"
      }
    ]
  },
  "publisher":{
    "@type":"Organization",
    "name":"Denver Post",
    "sameAs":"http://www.denverpost.com"
  },
  "reviewRating":{
    "@type":"Rating",
    "worstRating":1,
    "bestRating":4,
    "ratingValue":3.5
  },
  "url":"http://www.denverpost.com/movies/ci_24225964/gravity-movie-review-anchored-by-sandra-bullock-its"
}
</script>
The complete list of fields Google uses for critic reviews is shown in the Specification below.

Other markup formats

Though we strongly recommend using JSON-LD, Google can also read schema.org fields embedded in a web page with the microdata or RDFa standards. For examples of microdata markup, see http://schema.org/Review.

Important: Test your markup!

Whichever format you choose, once you have edited your template to include the markup, you should test that Google can understand the reviews correctly.
To test your markup, submit the HTML source of your marked-up web page to Google's structured data testing tool. If the tool reports "No structured data present," then you likely have a syntax error such as a spurious comma. Otherwise, if the tool reports that any required fields are missing, please repair the data and try again.

Specification

Google understands structured markup using schema.org property names which are supported by all major search engines. All reviews should be defined in a schema.org/Review item.

Common properties

The following properties should be populated for all reviews, regardless of the review subject.
PropertyTypeDescription
author (Required)PersonAnnotation for the author of the review.
author.name (Required)TextName of the author of the review.
  • Please provide the full name of the author. Values not containing more than one word will cause the review to be discarded.
  • The value should be capitalized correctly. Names comprised of entirely uppercase or lowercase letters will be edited such that the first letter of every word is capitalized.
author.sameAsURLURL to a page that unambiguously identified the author, e.g. the author's official website, a profile page, a Wikipedia article.
datePublished (Required)DateDate of the review's first publication, in ISO 8601 format.
inLanguage (Recommended)TextThe BCP-47 language code of the review description, e.g. "ja" is Japanese. Strongly recommended for non-English reviews.
description (Required)TextSnippet from the body of the actual review that captures the author's opinion about the review subject. This snippet will be used on the Google Search result page, as shown in the mocks above. All of the following criteria should be met, else the review will be excluded from the feature.
  • The snippet cannot exceed 200 characters.
  • The snippet must be an exact excerpt from the long-form body of the review. It should not be the review headline.
  • The snippet must clearly indicate an opinion about the review subject. It should not be a factual (e.g. "Gravity" is a film by Alfonso Cuarón) or plot synopsis (e.g. Dr. Ryan Stone is an engineer on her first space mission).
  • Use non-smart double quotation marks (&quot;) to denote titles, e.g. "&quot;Gravity&quot; is the best movie.".
publisher (Required)OrganizationAnnotation for the publisher of the review.
publisher.name (Required)TextName of the publisher of the review, e.g. "The New York Times".
publisher.sameAsURLURL of the publisher's official website or Wikipedia page.
reviewRatingRatingAnnotation for the score assigned to the item being reviewed.
reviewRating.bestRatingTextThe highest value allowed in the reviewer's rating system. If this field is omitted, 5 is assumed. Letter grades are allowed, e.g. "A".
reviewRating.worstRatingTextThe lowest value allowed in the reviewer's rating system. If this field is omitted, 1 is assumed. Letter grades are allowed, e.g. "C-".
reviewRating.ratingValueTextThe rating given to the reviewed item. Letter grades are allowed, e.g. "B+".
aggregateRatingAggregateRatingAnnotation for the average score assigned to the item being reviewed. This typically applies to user ratings rather than professional critic ratings.
aggregateRating.bestRatingTextThe highest value allowed in the reviewer's rating system. If this field is omitted, 5 is assumed. Letter grades are allowed, e.g. "A".
aggregateRating.worstRatingTextThe lowest value allowed in the reviewer's rating system. If this field is omitted, 1 is assumed. Letter grades are allowed, e.g. "C-".
aggregateRating.ratingValueTextThe average rating given to the reviewed item. Letter grades are allowed, e.g. "B+".
aggregateRating.ratingCountNumericThe number of ratings given to the reviewed item.
urlURLCanonical URL of the web page that contains the full text of the review.
  • If no value is provided, Google assumes that the crawled page is the location of the review in its entirety.
  • If your structured data is on a page other than the one containing the full text of the review, or if you have multiple URLs for the full-text review, you must populate this field.
  • The webpage indicated by this field must contain a full-length review that is longer than 300 words.
itemReviewed (Required)MovieBook,MusicAlbumAnnotation for the creative work being reviewed. See below for details of each type of creative work.

Specific review types

In addition to the common properties described above, each review type has specific properties that must be defined.

Review.itemReviewed should be of type Movie and contain the following properties.
PropertyTypeDescription
itemReviewed.name (Required)TextName of the movie that is the subject of the review.
itemReviewed.sameAs(Required)URLURL to a page that unambiguously identifies the movie. URLs to the IMDB page, Wikipedia page, or official website are stongly preferred.
itemReviewed.datePublished(Recommended)DateOriginal theatrical/direct-to-video release date of the movie, in ISO 8601 format.
itemReviewed.director(Recommended)PersonAnnotation for the director of the movie.
itemReviewed.director.name(Recommended)TextName of the director.
itemReviewed.director.sameAs(Recommended)URLURL to a page that unambiguously identifies the director. URLs to the IMDB page or Wikipedia page are strongly preferred.
itemReviewed.actorPersonAnnotation(s) for main cast of the movie.
itemReviewed.actor.nameTextName of the actor.
itemReviewed.actor.sameAsURLURL to a page that unambiguously identifies the actor. URLs to the IMDB page or Wikipedia page are strongly preferred.